The Importance of Fire Pipes—Protecting Buildings from Fire

Table of Contents

Fire pipe refers to the pipeline system established for fire protection, due to special needs, fire sprinkler piping thickness and material have special requirements, usually galvanized surface-coated carbon steel pipe or spray red paint, used to transport fire water and flame retardants.

Pandapipe offers fire sprinkler pipes and fittings that are UL listed and FM approved.

What is a Fire Plumbing System?

The fire plumbing system is a network system designed specifically for building fire protection, the core purpose of which is to ensure that in the event of a fire, sufficient water and pressure are provided to support the normal operation of the fire sprinkler system, the fire brigade’s fire hydrants, and other related fire protection piping.

The Function of Fire Pipe

The steel pipe has an extremely high melting point, ranging from 2600-2800 °F (1427-1538 °C), which allows it to withstand the heat generated by the burning of the building while also maintaining the flow of water to the source of the fire.

All fire fighting systems can use steel pipes. The material is easy to shape, bend and produce, and can be processed into a variety of different sizes, shapes, and Settings.

It is equipped with materials that have the lowest coefficient of thermal expansion among the fire sprinkler pipe material. This coefficient explains how the size of an object changes with fluctuations in temperature. According to the NIST, when a 100-foot section of steel pipe is heated from 40°F to 120°F, its expansion is only 0.63 inches, which greatly reduces the reported need for expansion rings and joints.

Steel sprinkler pipe also has many other advantages. Prolonged exposure to UV light does not affect its mechanical properties or properties. It can also be painted without adverse effects.

Fire pipe

Fire Pipes and Fire Fittings Standards

Pandapipe produces fire steel pipes and fittings mainly covering the following standards:

  • ASTM A135
  • ASTM A795
  • ASTM A106
  • ASTM A53

How to Select Fire Sprinkler Pipes in Different Scenarios

The selection of fire fighting pipes should comprehensively consider the characteristics of the building, the use of the environment, and safety needs, and choose the most suitable pipe material and system design to ensure the effectiveness and reliability of the fire fighting system.

According to GB50974-20148.2.8

Working pressure ≤ 1.20MPa → hot dip zinc galvanized steel pipe;

Working pressure ≥ 1.20MPa → hot-dip galvanized steel pipe or hot-dip galvanized seamless steel pipe;

Working pressure ≥ 1.60MPa → hot-dip galvanized seamless steel pipe.

General principles for selecting fire pipes:

  1. Safety and reliability: Priority is given to piping materials and systems that meet building fire safety requirements.
  2. Environmental adaptability: Select the appropriate pipe material according to the installation environment (such as indoor and outdoor, humidity, chemical corrosion risk, etc.).
  3. Economy: In the premise of meeting the safety and performance requirements, considering the cost-benefit ratio, choose a cost-effective pipeline solution.
  4. Maintenance and life: Consider long-term maintenance costs and the expected life of the system, choose a piping system that is easy to maintain and has a long life.

Fire Resistance of Fire Pipe Line

Importance of Fire Pipe Design and Installation

For galvanized steel pipes with a pipe diameter of more than 100 mm in the fire hydrant water supply system, a flange connection or groove connection is recommended.

When the pipe diameter of the automatic sprinkler system exceeds 100 mm, it is not explicitly stipulated that the threaded connection cannot be used, but it is recommended that on the pipe section with a diameter greater than or equal to 100mm, the trial connection or groove connection point should be set at a specific distance.

When the water supply system of the fire hydrant is connected with the pipe of the automatic sprinkler system through a flange, it is recommended to use a threaded flange; In the case of the use of welded flanges, it is recommended to carry out a secondary galvanizing treatment.

The Necessity of Fire Pipe Maintenance and Inspection

Proper testing and certification can help save lives and protect buildings from fire damage.

Charpy Impact Test: mainly assesses and determines the adaptability of the product to various impacts that may be experienced during its life, that is, whether it can work normally in the impact environment and maintain the integrity of the structure, to determine the resistance of metal materials to notch sensitivity (toughness) test.

Drop-Weight Tear Test: Test item to test the toughness of materials, mainly used in the study of low temperature brittleness of metal materials, the goal is to establish the relationship between fracture morphology and temperature.

Metallographic Test: Through the analysis of the metallographic structure, the amount, grain size, and microstructure of various micro-oxides in the weld metal can be understood, and the metallographic structure of the weld and heat affected zone can be checked and the internal defects can be determined.

Tensile Test: Refers to the tensile test, the tensile test can determine a series of strength indicators and plastic indicators of the material.

Spectral Analysis: The content of an element in the substance up to 10^-10(10 ^-10) grams, you can find its characteristic spectral line from the spectrum, so you can check it out.

Non-Destructive Testing (NDT): Under the condition of not damaging the tested object, the use of material internal structural abnormalities or defects caused by the physical quantity changes in heat, sound, light, electricity, magnetic, etc., to detect various engineering materials, parts, structural parts, and other internal and surface defects.

Flattening Test: A test method used to test the deformation properties of a metal tube flattened to a specified size and to show its defects.

Hydraulic Test: The test that can effectively detect the tightness of the steel pipe.

Fire Pipe Conclusion

Compared to conventional pipes, fire steel pipes are thicker and sturdier, which makes them more suitable for handling high-pressure water flows.

Therefore, fire pipe is widely used in various occasions. In the event of a fire, the fire steel pipe has become a key equipment to ensure the safety of firefighters and the public.


1. What schedule is the fire sprinkler pipe?

ASTM A53 requires sprinkler systems to use at least the in Schedule 40 pipe, but heavier piping may be used if necessary. ANSI/ASTM a135 deals with resistance values for welded pipes. The fabrication method allows for a thinner wire wall while reducing corrosion.

2. What type of pipe is used for fire sprinkler systems?

Steel has been the traditional material of choice for fire sprinklers, although thermoplastic pipes are now primarily used in residential and other light hazard categories.

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